Land Mines and Spatial Development

Giorgio Chiovelli, Stelios Michalopoulos, Elias Papaioannou

Working Paper, December 2019



  • History of Conflict

    Content: This section provides an overview on the main events of the War of Independence against the Portuguese colonial administration and the Civil War between FRELIMO and RENAMO.

  • History of Landmine Clearance

    Content: We review the main three phases of the Mine Action program in Mozambique from 1992 to 2015.

  • Landmine Database

    Content: This appendix reports detailed information on the construction of the landmine dataset.

  • Correlates of Landmines

    Content: We analyse what geographic, location, and socio-economic characteristics are correlated with i) placement of land mines and ii) timing of removal of mines.

  • Validation Luminosity-Development

    Content: In this appendix we show how luminosity can be used as a proxy for development in African and Mozambique.

  • Sensitivity Analysis, Local Effects

    Content: This section provides additional evidence on the effect of demining activities on local development.


    Content: This appendix provides additional evidence on the “errors-in-surveys” approach that exploits variation in demining driven by the inaccuracies in the three countrywide surveys to minimize concerns regarding centralized prioritization.

  • Details and Sensitivity Analysis, Market Access Effects

    Content: In this section i) we provide theoretical insights on market access; ii) we give details on the creation of market access; iii) we list the various robustness checks on the effect of demining activities on aggregate development.